How does VoIP work? This is a question that every new subscriber asks. Little does he realize that VoIP works in exactly the same ways as the e-mail does. The only difference is that e-mail is text-based traffic while VoIP is voice-based traffic.
The first step in transmitting voice traffic is to convert voice data into digital data. This is done by specialized VoIP software installed in your computer or by a phone adaptor which is part of your Internet phone. Once the voice is digitized it is broken into several small packets. Each packet is placed in a digital envelope and stamped with the IP address. The IP address is a unique address that is allotted to every device that is connected to the Internet.
The router reads the IP address and starts routing the digital packets to their destination. Interestingly, this routing may not happen over a single path. The data packets are instead moved over different paths to avoid congestion. This speeds up data movement, and also makes it possible to move more voice traffic on the same line. The data packets are reassembled at the destination point and routed to an ATA adapter, which reconverts them into voice signals.
The VoIP calls can be made using an IP phone, or from one computer to another using special software. They can also be made through an ATA adaptor, which converts voice signals from a conventional phone into digital form. However, to get good voice quality you need a broadband connection. This connection enables more digital traffic to flow smoothly as compared to a dial up connection which is too narrow and gets choked when the traffic increases.